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Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn--- Mark Twain      

 

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is the masterpiece as well as the most important work of the famous writer of the United States -- Mark Twain in the nineteenth century. Just as Ernest Hemingway speaks in his comment "All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn....There was nothing before. There has been nothing as good since." Mark Twain was evaluated by Ernest Hemingway as The source of American Modern Literature.

The book is noted for its colorful description of people and places along the Mississippi River. Satirizing a Southern antebellum society         that had ceased to exist about twenty years before the work was published, Adventures of     Huckleberry Finn is an often scathing look at entrenched attitudes, particularly racism.

In a first-person way, the book vividly describes the adventure story happened in the United States before the Civil War that the hero—the 13-year-old Huckleberry Finn (Huck in short), unwilling to follow the line of the society's "enlightenment", then along with the slave Jim, escapes to the Mississippi. The work gives the main character--Huck a vivid, meaningful and profound description. His adventure is a self-psychology course that his spirit of the continuous development of social morality and finally set foot on the pursuit of his ideals. Huck's moral development focuses on two major conflicts and clues. On the one hand, Huck 1 abhors and resists to the real world filled with hypocrisy, greed, selfishness, cruelty which is in the represent of the widow Douglas, drunkard father, two swindlers, Duke and the National King, as well as the slave traders. On the other hand, Huck must decide between either handing over the escaped slave Jim to surrender according to norms of social morality or protecting and helping his friend. With the development of the novel plot, the two conflicts continue and upgrade. At the same time, in step with the process of the story, Huck shapes his moral consciousness gradually, and with his wisdom and cognitive style, the construction of morality value upon the surrounding world is completed. Finally, he makes a decision to break up with the real world, setting foot on the self-road to explore and show the true spirit.

       Perennially popular with readers, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has also been the continued object of study by literary critics since its publication. It was criticized upon release because of its coarse language and became even more controversial in the 20th century because of its perceived use of racial stereotypes and because of its frequent use of the racial slur "nigger", despite strong arguments that the protagonist, and the tenor of the book, is anti-racist.

 

 

 

                 哈克贝利·费恩历险记

《哈克贝利·费恩历险记》是马克·吐温一部重要的作品,故事的主人公是在《汤姆·索亚历险记》中就跟大家见面的哈克贝利·费恩。哈克贝利是一个聪明、善良、勇敢的白人少年。他为了追求自由的生活,逃亡到密西西比河上。在逃亡途中,他遇到了黑奴吉姆。吉姆是一个勤劳朴实、热情诚实、忠心耿耿的黑奴,他为了逃脱被主人再次卖掉的命运,从主人家中出逃。

哈克贝利过惯了自由散漫的流浪生活,现在做了寡妇道格拉斯的养子,成天穿挺阔的衣服,学习没完没了的清规戒律,实在令人难熬。一天,哈克贝利的失踪了一年多的酒鬼父亲突然出现,强迫儿子乘小船到一个避远林子小屋与他同住。结束循规蹈矩的生活,到林子里捉鱼打猎,自由自在,哈克贝利当然高兴。但是父亲逼他交出与汤姆平分的那笔钱财,喝醉发起酒疯时又常常打他,实在令人无法忍受。于是他趁父亲上镇卖木材的机会,先安排了一个自己被淹死的假象,然后就偷了小划子,逃到了杰克逊岛上躲了起来。

这个小岛本荒无人烟,可是他却发现了华岑小姐家的黑奴吉姆。吉姆听说小姐要卖他出去,就逃了出来。哈克贝利知道帮助逃奴是违法行为。可是现在两人都是逃亡者,也就同病相怜了成了患难之交。他们知道小岛并不安全,就立即动身,乘木筏顺密西西比河漂流,希望逃离蓄奴州。为了逃避追捕,他们白天躲进岸边的树林,只在夜间出来活动。几经磨难,他们终于漂到一个大河湾,以为到了安全地,上岸一打听,这才知道他们一直在向南而不是向北漂流,所以反而越来越深入蓄奴区。他们无奈,只好听天由命。对他们来说,唯有密西西比河,唯有这小小的木筏,才是自由安全的天地。一天拂晓,有两个被愤怒人群追赶着的人向哈克贝利求救,善良的哈克贝利收留了他们,却很快发现他们是狡猾的骗子“国王”和“公爵”。他们喧宾夺主,控制了木筏,一路上不断招摇撞骗,甚至背着哈克贝利卖掉了吉姆。哈克贝利知道自己孤身一人斗不过两个坏蛋,就偷偷躲过他们,前去费尔普斯农场拯救吉姆。他在那里发现买下吉姆的正是汤姆的姨夫,而且这一家人正在等待当年汤姆前来作客。所以费尔普斯太太一见哈克贝利,就误认他是侄儿汤姆。机灵的哈克贝利将错就错,索性冒充起汤姆,又赶出去截住汤姆,一起设计救出吉姆。汤姆热衷冒险,坚持按书上的惊险方式进行营救。他以自己弟弟西德的身份见了姨夫一家,然后悄悄寄出匿名信声称吉姆即将逃跑。农场里的人于是组织了起来。当吉姆失踪的消息一传开,他们就荷枪实弹地四处追捕。由于他们是真枪真打,所以把帮助吉姆逃跑的哈克贝利和汤姆吓得半死。他们慌了手脚,拼命乱跑,结果汤姆腿上挨了一枪,真正尝到了冒险的滋味。当他看见人们押回吉姆时,这才透露了事实真相:根据吉姆原主人华岑小姐的遗嘱,吉姆早已获得自由。费尔普斯太太热情地提出要收养哈克贝利,但被谢绝。哈克贝利主意已定,要到印第安人居住的地方去过漂泊不定的自由生活。