详细内容

A Streetcar Named Desire

A Streetcar Named Desire---Tennessee Williams

A Streetcar Named Desire is a 1947 play written by American playwright Tennessee Williams for which he received the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1948. The play was once opened on Broadway on December 3, 1947,

 Blanche DuBois is a fading, but still-attractive, Southern belle whose pretensions to virtue and culture only thinly mask alcoholism and delusions of grandeur. Her poise is an illusion she presents to shield others (but most of all, herself) from her reality, and an attempt to make herself still attractive to new male suitors. Blanche arrives at the apartment of her sister Stella Kowalski in the Faubourg Marigny neighborhood of New Orleans, on Elysian Fields Avenue; the local transportation that she takes to arrive there includes a streetcar route named "Desire." The steamy, urban ambiance is a shock to Blanche's nerves. Stella, who fears the reaction of her husband Stanley, welcomes Blanche with some trepidation. As Blanche explains that their ancestral Southern plantation, Belle Reve in Laurel, Mississippi, has been "lost" due to the "epic fornications" of their ancestors, her veneer of self-possession begins to slip drastically. Blanche tells Stella that her supervisor allowed her to take time off from her job as an English teacher because of her upset nerves, when in fact, she has been fired for having an affair with a 17-year-old student. This turns out not to be the only seduction in which she has engaged, and, along with other problems, has led her to escape Laurel. A brief marriage marred by the discovery that her husband, Allan Grey, was having a homosexual affair and his subsequent suicide has led Blanche to withdraw into a world in which fantasies and illusions blend seamlessly with reality.

In contrast to both the self-effacing and deferential Stella and the pretentious refinement of Blanche, Stella's husband, Stanley Kowalski, is a force of nature: primal, rough-hewn, brutish, and sensual. He dominates Stella in every way and is physically and emotionally abusive. Stella tolerates his primal behavior as this is part of what attracted her in the first place; their love and relationship are heavily based on powerful—even animal-like—sexual chemistry, something that Blanche finds impossible to understand.

The arrival of Blanche upsets her sister and brother-in-law's relationship dynamics and system of mutual dependence. Stella's concern for her sister's well-being emboldens Blanche to hold court in the Kowalski apartment, infuriating Stanley and leading to conflict in his relationship with Stella, who is pregnant. Blanche and Stanley are on a collision course, and Stanley's friend and Blanche's would-be suitor, Harold "Mitch" Mitchell, gets trampled in their path. Stanley discovers Blanche's past through a co-worker who travels to Laurel frequently, and he confronts her with the things that she has been trying to put behind her, partly out of concern that her character flaws may be damaging to the lives of those in her new home, just as they were in Laurel, and partly out of a distaste for her pretense in general. However, his attempts to "unmask" her are predictably cruel and violent. In their final confrontation, it is implied that Stanley rapes Blanche, resulting in her nervous breakdown. Stanley has her committed to a mental institution, and in the closing moments, Blanche utters her signature line to the kindly doctor who leads her away: "Whoever you are, I have always depended on the kindness of strangers."

The character of Blanche is thought to be based on Williams' sister Rose Williams who struggled with her mental health and became incapacitated after a lobotomy.

 

 

                                欲望号街车

布兰奇·杜波依斯家道中落,投靠已出嫁的妹妹史黛拉·柯文斯基并告诉她失去了“美梦庄园”。她搭乘新奥尔良有轨电车的“欲望街车”到新奥尔良的“天堂大道”,找到史黛拉和她丈夫史丹利·柯文斯基的住处。这对夫妻住在一楼,楼上则住着房东尤妮丝夫妇。布兰奇史丹利交谈,说自己是位高中英文老师,结过一次婚,但是。在她去沐浴的时候,史黛拉从行李中发现布兰奇有许多奢侈品,开始怀疑布兰奇是否在骗他们。布兰奇是个敏感的人,因此史黛拉千交代万交代史丹利要待她好点,但是史丹利不听。

一天布兰奇告诉史黛拉她对一个叫做雪波‧杭特雷的人的谎言的时候,尤妮丝正好和史蒂夫吵架,从楼上逃了出来,扬言要报警。不久史丹利回家问起这件事,并告诉史黛拉尤妮丝去喝了一杯。布兰奇问史丹利的星座,史丹利则问她有没有听过一个名叫修的人,因为这位修见过布兰奇,还知道她在一家叫做“红鹤”的酒店待过,布兰奇则回应那种地方她想都不会想去。这时因为他们要参加一场舞会,史丹利和史黛拉约好下午四点会场见之后就出门了,不久史黛拉跟着出去,留下布兰奇等待米奇来接他。其中有个为杂志社工作的青年来推销,布兰奇和他发生了关系。青年离开后不久,米奇就来了。

布兰奇生日时,他们买了个蛋糕帮她做生日。布兰奇一直称有波兰血统的史丹利为“波兰佬又要他说笑话,本来就不太高兴的史丹利更加愤怒,史黛拉要他帮忙收桌子的时候,他一气之下把桌上的盘子扫到地上。

史丹利经过层层调查之后,发现布兰奇说的全都是谎话,也告诉米奇。不仅史丹利去找布兰奇兴师问罪,米奇也怀疑为何每次他们约会布兰奇总是希望约在晚上或黑暗的地方,而他总是看不到她的脸。他也去查证,知道真相之后,随即到史丹利家找布兰奇问个清楚,把她推到灯光下要看清楚她的脸,这才发现布兰奇已经不年轻了。她并不是自己请辞的,而是发生师生恋后被学校解聘,另外她确实在一家酒店待过,不过店名不是红鹤,而是“大蜘蛛”。当时布兰奇想请他喝酒,但米奇说自己“不喝史丹利的酒”。两人冲突之中,布兰奇又出现幻听的现象了。真相大白后,布兰奇发誓她讲自己的感觉是真心的,问米奇是否仍愿意娶她,米奇失望之虞回答了“不”,痛苦无助的布兰奇立刻把他赶出门去。

布兰奇收拾行李,希望能离开这里,却被刚从医院回来的史丹利撞见了。因为他们的女儿可能早上才会出生,所以医院要他先回来休息。布兰奇说要去加勒比海,史丹利怎么也不让她走,一直以言语攻击她,布兰奇想打电话向雪波求助,却是一点办法也没有。最后史丹利终于强暴了她。

此后布兰奇愈来愈神志不清,说话开始语无伦次。有天当她在梳头“要等某人”时,史黛拉和尤妮丝一直说她好看。史丹利、米奇等人也在场。等到布兰奇准备好时,刚好有人敲门,尤妮丝看过后告诉布兰奇她等的人来了,布兰奇兴奋的去开门,没想到走进来的竟是三个精神病院人员,粗鲁的检查完布兰奇有无皮肤病后,他们强行押著布兰奇到精神病院去。一旁的米奇低着头,伤心欲绝。史黛拉则怎么样也阻止不了这些人,大梦初醒似的喊著“我对我姊姊做了什么了”。布兰奇对那三人说“无论你们是谁,我一直都依靠陌生人的好心而活”。电影版中史黛拉看到这样的结果,一气之下又带着女儿跑到尤妮丝家去,任凭楼下史丹利再怎么嘶声力竭的叫唤,她发誓绝不再回去了……