详细内容

文学流派

Three Main Schools of Literature in 20th Century

20世纪西方三大文学流派

 

Making a general survey of development situation of schools of literature in America and western countries in 20th Century, we can find American and western literature in 20th Century can be divided broadly into three main sections: Realism Literature, Modernism Literature, Postmodernism Literature. These there sections are usually called by many scholars three main schools of literature in 20th Century.

1. Realism Literature——Face afflictions directly and embrace hard life bravely. Be free from traditions and dare to absorb new techniques and thoughts of Modernism, therefore, it had diversified means to create.

2. Modernism Literature——This most influenced school is a general term of many anti-traditional schools. It reflects the transformation and innovation of traditional American and European literature in new era. Realism Literature and Modernism Literature influenced and permeated each other.

3. Postmodernism Literature—— It is a general term of many anti-traditional schools after the Second World War. Writers of this school always strive continually to be different. Both in artistic thought and in technique, Postmodernism Literature is the continuation and development of Modernism Literature, and these two schools are crossing-complementing.

Generally speaking, the Second World War is the boundary of Modernism Literature and Postmodernism Literature. The sub-schools of Modernism Literature usually include later Symbolism, Expressionism, and Stream of Consciousness, Surrealism, Existentialism and Magical Realism literature etc., and sub-schools of the later include Theater of the Absurd, Nouveau Roman (New Novel), Black Humor and so on.

 

 

纵观20世纪西方文学的发展态势,总览西方文学的发展脉络,其发展大致可分为三大板块:现实主义文学、现代主义文学、后现代主义文学。不少学者将其称为三大文学流派。

1. 现实主义文学——直面惨淡人生,勇敢拥抱生活. 不拘泥于传统,勇于吸纳,大量吸收现代主义的技巧和思路,其创作手段更加丰富,呈现多元化。

2. 现代主义文学——影响最大,具有“反传统”倾向。现代主义文学不是—个单一的流派,而是许多反对传统文学的流派的总称。它表现了欧美传统文学在新时代的转型与创新。现代主义和现实主义并不是绝对的相互排斥,而是相互影响、相互渗透。

 3.后现代主义文学——第二次世界大战之后各种反传统文学流派的总称。它的特征是:追求时尚,追求个性,标新立异。无论在文艺思想还是在创作技巧上,后现代主义文学都是现代主义文学的延续和发展,它与现代主义文学是交叉互补的。

现代主义文学和后现代主义文学以第二次世界大战为界。前者主要有后期象征主义、表现主义、意识流、超现实主义、存在主义、魔幻现实主义文学等,后者主要有荒诞派戏剧、新小说派、黑色幽默小说等。(参见朱维之《外国文学史》欧美卷,南开大学出版社,2004)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expressionism表现主义)

 

1. History of Development

This important literary school was at its height between 1910 and 1925 ——in the period just before, during, and after WWI. It emerged in paining in Germany, and then spread into literature. The first person used it is a German critic Walden in one of his painting comments. It is used to emphasize internal world by breaking external representation and using show to substitute representation.

2. Main Features

(1)abstraction; (2)deformation; (3)the real time dislocation; (4) using symbolic and absurd technique; (5) using mask; (6)lay stress on effect of sound and light. Among these features, the first four refer to novels, and the last two refer to dramas.

3. Representative Writers and Works

(1) In drama

Eugene O’Neill: Emperor Jones (1920), The Hairy Ape (1922)

August Strindberg: Go to Damascus(1898), The Ghost Sonata(1900)

(2)In novel

Franz Kafka: The Metamorphosis (1915), The Castle (1915)

 

1.发展历史

表现主义是第一次世界大战前后20世纪初至30年代流行于欧美的一个重要现代主义流派。它起源于德国,首先从绘画开始,随后波及文学。最早出现于德国评论家瓦尔登在《狂飚》杂志上发表的一篇绘画评论,强调要突破事物的外在表象,表现内在世界,用"表现"取代"再现"。

2.主要特征

其特征为:①抽象化;②变形;③时空的真幻错位;④象征和荒诞的手法;⑤面具的运用;⑥注重声光效果。其中①~④指小说,⑤⑥指戏剧。

3.代表作家作品

(1)在戏剧上:

美国的奥尼尔:《琼斯皇》(1920)、《毛猿》(1921)

瑞典的斯特林堡:《到大马士革去》(1898),《鬼魂奏鸣曲》(1900)

(2)在小说上:

奥地利的卡夫卡:《城堡》(1915),《变形记》(1915)

 

 

 

Existentialism Literature存在主义文学

 

1. History of Development

Existentialism Literature emerged in 1930s in France and climaxed after the Second World War. It gained the strongest momentum in modern literature throughout the world. Based on Existentialism, it expresses existentialism thought in form of literature.

2. Main Features

(1) The basic themes of this school are “The world is absurd” and “The life is painful”. On one hand, it describes the absurdity of capitalist world, on the other hand, it presents man’s misfortune, devastation, solitude, disappointment and terror.

(2) Artistically, Existentialism Literature combines philosophy in literary images, and utilizes both traditional and modern techniques of expression to present themes.

3. Representative Writers and Works

    (1) Albert Camus: The Stranger (1942), The Plague (1947)

(2) Jean-Paul Sartre: Nausea (1938), Les Chemins de la liberté (1945), etc.

(3) Simone de Beauvoir: L'Invitée(1943), etc.

 

1.发展历史   

存在主义滥觞于20世纪30年代的法国,二战后达到发展的顶峰。它是现代派文学中声势最大,风靡全球的一种文学潮流。存在主义文学在存在主义哲学基础上产生,它是以文学的形式宣传存在主义哲学思想。

2.主要特征

(1)“世界是荒谬的”和“人生是痛苦的”是存在主义文学的基本主题。一方面描写资本主义世界的荒诞性,另一方面表现人的不幸与毁灭,以及孤独、失望、恐惧的思想情绪。

(2)艺术上,①存在主义文学寓哲理于形象中;②不拘一格地运用表现手法,传统的和现代的并用。

3.代表作家作品

(1)法国加缪:《局外人》(1942),《鼠疫》(1947)

(2)法国让·保罗·萨特:《恶心》(1938),《自由之路》(1945)等

(3)法国波伏瓦:《女客》(1943)等

 

 

 

Black Humor黑色幽默)

 

1. History of Development

This literary school flourished in 1960s and got the name from the collection Black Humor compiled by American writer Freedman. “Black Humor” is a writing method in literature to use form of comedy to show tragic content “Black” refers to terrific and absurd objective reality, and “humor” refers to the sarcastic attitude of a personality with purposes and strong will towards this objective reality. Adding “black” to “humor”, this attitude becomes a humor showing desperation, which is also called “humor under gallows” by western critics.

2. Main Features

 (1) Special humorous style. Black Humor breaks the traditional boundary between comedy and tragedy which is comedy usually satirizes the ugliness and deformity of antagonists, and tragedy often shows heroes’ sufferings and misfortunes. However, Black Humor utilizes form of comedy to show tragic content, joking sufferings and misfortunes.

(2) “Antihero”. These antiheroes doubt and negate all traditional values, being lonely just like only he is awake while all others are drunk, and they have certain pursuit.

 (3) Anti-novel narrative structure. Black Humor abandons completely the traditional “storytelling”, without complete structure and inherent logical relationship. It utilizes hints, foil, contrast, simile, and symbols to break the constraints of space and time and exaggerate the expanse of man’s inner world.

    (4) Special subjects. There are two special subjects: firstly, about science and technique; then about special situation full of dilemma and blurred vision while seemingly having greatly discerning and apprehending.

3. Representative Writers and Works

(1) Joseph Heller: Catch-22 (1961)

(2) Kurt Vonnegut: Slaughterhouse- Five (1969), Cat’s Cradle (1963)

(3)Thomas Pynchon: Gravity’s Rainbow (1973)

 

1.历史发展

“黑色幽默”是60年代风行美国的一个现代主义小说流派。由美国作家弗里德曼编的一个《黑色幽默》的集子而得名。“黑色幽默”是一种用喜剧的形式来表现悲剧的内容的文学方法。“黑色”是指可怕而又滑稽的客观现实,“幽默”指的是有目的有意志的个性对这种现实所采取的嘲讽态度。“幽默”加上了“黑色”,就成为了一种展现绝望的幽默。西方评论家把它称之为“绞刑架下的幽默”。

2.主要特征

(1)特殊的幽默风格。 “黑色幽默”文学打破了“喜剧讽刺反面人物的丑恶和畸形,悲剧表现正面英雄的痛苦和不幸”的传统,以喜剧形式表现悲剧内容,痛苦和不幸也成了开玩笑的对象。

(2)“反英雄”式的人物。这些反英雄形象怀疑和否定一切传统价值,有众人皆醉我独醒的孤独感,又有一定的追求。

(3)“反小说”的叙事结构法。“黑色幽默”文学彻底抛弃了“讲故事”的传统,没有完整的故事结构,情节发展不符合内在的逻辑关系。它用暗示、烘托、对比、比喻、象征等手法,打破时空限制,夸大人物内心世界的广袤无垠。

(4)特殊的题材。具体表现在两个方面:首先在科技领域里发掘题材。其次喜欢选择意义不明,摇摆不定、似梦似醒、似大彻大悟又似雾里看花的特殊场面。

3.代表作家作品

  (1)美国海勒:《第二十二条军规》(1961)

  (2)冯纳古特:《五号屠场》(1969),《猫的摇篮》(1963)

  1. 品钦:《万有引力之虹》(1973)

 

 

 

Black Mountain Poets黑山派诗人)

 

1. History of Development

This American poetry school emerged in 1950s and consisted of a group of writers, professors and artists in Black Mountain College, a school of literature and art in North Carolina which established in 1933 and suspended in 1956. The writers and professors teaching here established their own publications——Black Mountain Review, in which they published innovative yet disciplined verse. Their experimental yet disciplined style took its impetus from the essay “Projective Verse” (1950) by Charles Olson. They developed and perfected the theory of “Projective Verse”, and gradually formed the new poetry school——Black Mountain. In the later of 1950s, this significant school converged with The Beat Generation.

2. Main Features

(1) In form, it advocates free verse instead of traditional metric foot, that is to say, there should be compatibility between lines of verse and poet’s thought, breath and gesture rhythm.

(2) In content, it believes poets transmit “energy” to readers through poems which accordingly are “energy structure” and “energy radiation”. It’s necessary for poets to write their own experience to resonate with readers

(3) It stands for spontaneity and colloquialism, and objects exquisite style of academicism

3. Representative Writers and Works

(1) Charles Olson: Projective Verse(1950)

(2) Robert Kyle: I Know a Man

 

1.发展历史

这是20世纪50年代在美国出现的一个诗歌流派。这个流派由在黑山学院任教的一批作家、教授及艺术家组成。黑山学院原是北卡罗来纳州的一所文学艺术学院,成立于1933年,1956年停办。在这里任教的作家和教授们创办了他们自己的刊物——《黑山评论》。他们在《黑山评论》上发表诗作与诗歌评论文章,试图探索诗歌创作的新路径。1950年,奥尔森提出了他的新诗歌创作理论和方式,这就是与传统格律体诗相反的“投射体”诗。他与他的文学伙伴们发展、完善了这种理论,逐步形成了一个新的诗歌流派——黑山派。50年代后期,黑山派与垮掉派合流,在美国文学界引起了极大的影响。

2.主要特征

(1)形式上要求“开放”,使用自由格律来代替传统的音部,诗的行文应与诗人的思想、呼吸与手势节奏相适应。

(2)内容上,诗将诗人的“能量”传递给读者。诗是一种“能的结构”与“能的放射”。诗人应写亲身经历所引发的题材,以产生共鸣。

(3)主张自发性与口语化,反对精雕细刻的学院派诗风。

3.代表作家作品

(1)查·奥尔逊奥尔森:《放射体诗歌》(1950)

 (2)罗伯特·克瑞莱:《我认识一个人》

Theater of the Absurd (荒诞派戏剧):

 

1. History of Development

This anti-traditional drama school emerged in France in 1950s and then became fashionable in other countries. Eugene Ionesco’s The Bald Soprano symbolized the birth of this school, and the name derived from the book The Theater of Absurd written by famous British drama theorist Martin·Aslin.

2. Main Features

 (1) Absurd and abstract theme. Broadly speaking, the theme of this drama school is man’s abstract depressed psychology in absurd surroundings.

 (2) Disintegrated images of the stage: Dramatist of this school think the essence of the world is absurdity, and the central content of drama is irrationality. Therefore, on stage there is no concept of time and space, no basic layout of structure, no characters with distinctive personality, no heart-thrilling conflicts, and with disordered speech and thought, all actors are absurd and irrational.

 (3) Peculiar function of props. It advocates properties can speak, and through properties, man’s upset is externalized. Man’s activities become visual images, and this kind of function of properties makes visual art come to its highest peak.

3. Representative Writers and Works

(1) Samuel Beckett: Waiting for Godot (1952)

(2) Eugene Ionesco: The Bald Soprano (1949)

 

1.发展历史

荒诞派戏剧是20世纪50年代兴起于法国,尔后迅速风靡于欧美其他国家的一个反传统戏剧流派。法国尤奈斯库是荒诞派戏剧的奠基人,其独幕话剧《秃头歌女》的上演,标志着荒诞派戏剧的诞生。“荒诞派”因1962年英国著名戏剧理论家马丁 艾思林写的《荒诞派戏剧》而得名。

2.主要特征

(1)荒诞、抽象的主题。从广泛意义上讲,荒诞派剧作家的作品主题都是人类荒诞处境中所感到的抽象的苦闷心理。

(2)支离破碎的舞台形象。认为“荒诞”是世界的本质,“非理性”是戏剧表现的核心内容。因此无时空观念,无戏剧结构的基本格局,无性格鲜明的人物形象,无扣人心弦的戏剧冲突。舞台上演员们举止荒诞怪异,语言颠三倒四,思维混乱不堪,毫无理智可言。

(3)奇特怪异的道具功能。通过物体把戏剧人物的“局促不安加以外化,让舞台道具说话,把行动变成视觉形象”,道具使戏剧的“直观艺术”特点发挥到极限。
3.代表作家作品

(1)爱尔兰萨缪尔·贝克特:《等待戈多》(1952)

(2)法国尤奈斯库:《秃头歌女》(1949)

 

 

 

The Beat Generation(垮掉的一代)

 

1. History of Development

It refers to a loose-knit group of young poets and novelists in the second half of the 1950s and early 1960s in America. This term was brought up firstly by Jack Kerouac around 1948 which is contrasted to “the Lost Generation”. “The Lost Generation” lost belief on life because of war, while they didn’t lose the desire for humanity. However, most members of “Beat Generation” lost the basic understanding of humanity. With this term, the public express their disappointment and dissatisfaction.

2. Main Features

    They use homosexuality, jazz, addiction and insobriety to escape reality, challenge the traditional value and perform their morbid revolt. They put forward the conclusion that degeneration is emancipation, and indulging in sensual pleasures is legal.

3. Representative Writers and Works

(1) Jack Kerouac: On the Road (1957).

(2) Allen Ginsberg: Howl (1956)

(3) J.D.Salinger: The Catcher in the Rye (1951)

 

1.发展历史

“垮掉的一代” 是二战后风行美国的文学流派,是美国一群青年男女的松散集合体。这一名称最早是由作家杰克·克鲁亚克于1948年前后提出的。“垮掉的一代”实际上是“迷惘的一代”的对照。“迷惘的一代”之所以对生活失去信念是由于战争的创伤,但他们并未因此而失去对人性的渴望。“垮掉的一代”则不同,他们中的许多人已经丧失了对人性的最基本的理解,用“垮掉的一代”作为称谓也表达了公众对他们的失望和不满。

2.主要特征

用同性恋、爵士乐、吸毒酗酒等来逃避现实并向体面的社会和美国传统价值观念挑战,对社会进行病态的反抗。提出"沉沦就是解放"和纵欲享乐合法的结论。

3.代表作家作品

  (1)杰克·克鲁亚克:《在路上》(1957)

(2)艾伦·金斯堡:《嚎叫》(1956)

(3) 杰罗姆·大卫·塞林格:《麦田里的守望者》(1951)

 

 

 

Lost Generation迷惘的一代)

 

1. History of Development

The term in general refers to the post- World War I generation, but specifically a group of US writers who came of age during the war and established their reputation in the 1920s. It stems from a remark made by Gertrude Stein to Ernest Hemingway, “You are all a lost generation.” Hemingway used it as an epigraph to The Sun Also Rises, a novel that captures the attitudes of a hard-drinking, fast living set of disillusioned young expatriates in postwar Paris. The generation was “lost” in the sense that its inherited values were no longer relevant in the postwar world and because of its spiritual alienation from US, they seemed hopelessly provincial, materialistic, and emotionally barren. Although it exists not very long, it is significant in literature.

2. Main Features

Firstly the simplicity and colloquial trend for language, and then form innovation.

3. Representative Writers and Works

(1) Hemingway: The Sun Also Rises (1927), A Farewell to Arms(1927))

(2) Fitzgerald: The Great Gatsby( 1925)

 

1. 发展历史

“迷惘的一代”是第一次世界大战后美国的一个文学流派。20年代初,侨居巴黎的美国女作家格·斯泰因对海明威说:“你们都是迷惘的一代。”海明威把这句话作为他第一部长篇小说《太阳照常升起》的题词,“迷惘的一代”从此成为这批虽无纲领和组织但有相同的创作倾向的作家的称谓。所谓“迷惘”,是指他们共有的彷徨和失望情绪。“迷惘的一代”尽管是一个短暂的潮流,但它在美国文学史上的地位是确定的。

2. 主要特色

首先是语言上的简约主义和口语化倾向,其次是形式上勇于创新。

3. 代表作家作品

(1)海明威:《太阳照样升起》(1927)、《永别了,武器》(1927)

(2)菲兹杰拉德:《了不起的盖茨比》(1925)

 

 

 

Magical Realism魔幻现实主义)

 

1. History of Development

Magical Realism is a .Latin American literary school in mid 20th century. It emerged in 1930s and 1940s, and became main stream in 1960s. The first person who used this term is a writer of Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela Arturo Uslar Petri. People call its rise and development the explosion of Latin American literature.

2. Main Features

Magical Realism is a writing method using illusion caused by magic to show life in reality. That is to say, using illusion to hide reality and display a recycling illusory world with subjective and objective time mixing and without boundary of subjective ideas and objective materials. In description of reality, writers draw into a lot of supernatural factors, such as miracles, illusions, dreams and even ghosts. “Magic” not only comes from traditional culture and value, but many techniques of expression in western modernism, such as symbolism, absurdity and stream of consciousness.

3. Representative Writers and Works

(1) Mexico writer Juan Rulfo: Pedro Paramo (1955), symbol of real maturing

(2) Colombia novelist Gabriel Garcia Marquez: One Hundred Years of Solitude (1966),symbol of climax

 

1.发展历史

魔幻现实主义指的是20世纪中期拉丁美洲小说创作中的一个流派。发端于20世纪三四十年代,至60年代后成为拉美小说创作的主流。首先在拉丁美洲使用"魔幻现实主义"这一术语的人是委内瑞拉作家阿图罗·乌斯拉尔·彼特里。它的兴起被称为“拉美文学的爆炸”。

2.主要特征

魔幻现实主义是通过“魔法”所产生的幻景来表达生活现实的一种创作方法。用魔幻的东西将现实隐去,展示给读者的是一个循环往复的,主客观时间相混合,主客观事物的空间失去界限的世界。在现实描绘中引入大量超自然因素,如奇迹、幻觉、梦境、鬼魂形象。“魔幻性”既带有浓厚的拉丁美洲传统文化和观念,又深受西方现代主义诸多表现手法的影响,如象征、荒诞、意识流等。

3.代表作家作品

  (1)墨西哥鲁尔福:《佩德罗 帕拉莫》(1955),真正成熟的标志。

  1. 哥伦比亚马尔克斯:《百年孤独》(1966),形成热潮的标志。

 

 

 

Symbolism象征主义)

 

1. History of Development

It is the earliest and most influenced school in the western modernism movement. Symbolism has two periods. The former symbolism originated in the mid- 19th century in France and flourished in the later 19th century. The later symbolism emerged after the First World War, and climaxed in 1920s.

2. Main Features

(1) Emphasize the world is the symbol of man’s mind.

(2) Emphasize “telepathy” and “synesthesia”.

(3) Emphasize the significance of mysterious beauty and synesthesia.

(4) In arts, symbolism usually uses symbols, hints and metaphors to show the communication of natural phenomena and self.

3. Representative Writers and Works

     French poet Charles Baudelaire and American poet Edgar Allan Poe are pioneers of symbolism.

    (1) T.S.Eliot: The Waste Land (1922)

(2) French poet Paul Valery: The Seaside Cemetery (1926)

(3) Irish poet and dramatist William Butler Yeats: Sailing to Byzantium

(4) Maeterlinck. M: Blue Bird (1908)

1.发展历史

象征主义是西方现代主义文学运动中出现最早,影响最大的文学流派,它分为前后两个时期。前期象征主义起源于19世纪中叶的法国,并在该国19世纪后半叶流行。后期象征主义在第一次世界大战后应运而生,于20世纪20年代达到高潮。

2.主要特征

(1)强调世界是人的心灵的象征。

(2)强调“感应”和“通感”。

(3)强调神秘美和通感的意义。

(4)在艺术上,象征主义广泛使用象征、暗示、隐喻等方法,表现自然现象和自我之间的沟通。

3.代表作家作品:

法国诗人夏尔·波德莱尔和美国诗人爱伦·坡是象征主义的先驱

(1)美国T S 艾略特:《荒原》(1922)

(2)法国诗人瓦雷里:《海滨墓园》(1926)

(3)爱尔兰诗人、剧作家叶芝:《驶向拜占庭》

(4)梅特林克:《青鸟》(1908)

 

 

 

Nouveau Roman(New Novel)(新小说)

 

1. History of Development

    New Novel, also called anti-novel or Refused Novel, formed in 1950s and later became one of the most important novel schools after the Second World War in France and even all western countries.

2. Main Features

(1) Object traditional fiction’s representation of real life. They believe the world is absurd, nil and unreal, and traditional fictions just fool and cheat readers.

(2) Object the traditional fiction’s tendentiousness, and advocate that authors should present the existence of the absurd world without any intentional change, tone and loaded meaning.

(3) Abandon plots and characters, collage messy fragments and establish a style of only writing objects by using objects instead of people.

(4) Advocate that readers take part in writing novels and reconstruct characters and plots.

3. Representative Writers and Works

(1) Nathalie Sarraute: Tropismes

(2) Claude·Simon: La Route Des Flandres (1960), Father of New Novel

(3) Alain Robbe-Grillet.: The Voyeur(1955)

  

1.发展历史

形成于20世纪50年代的法国,后成为二战后法国乃至西方最重要的小说流派之一,又称反小说派或拒绝派。

2.主要特征

(1)反对传统小说的再现生活。他们认为世界是荒诞、虚无和不真实的,传统小说是对读者的愚弄和欺骗。

(2)反对传统小说的倾向性,主张作家原封不动地照搬荒诞世界的存在,不赋予它任何意义和感情色彩。

(3)屏弃情节和人物,拼贴散乱的片断。以物代人,创立纯粹写物的风格。

(4)倡导读者参与创作,重建小说的人物与情节。

3.代表作家作品

(1)法国娜塔莉·萨洛特:《向性》

(2)法国克洛德·西蒙:《佛兰德公路》(1960), "新小说派之父"

(3)法国阿兰·罗布-格里耶:《窥视者》(1955)

 

 

Stream of consciousness (意识流小说)

 

1. History of Development

    Here Stream of Consciousness refers to a kind of novel emerged in1920s used to present people’s stream of consciousness and display the blurred trance in their inner world.

2. Main Features

(1) A lot of inner soliloquy/interior monologue and free association

(2) Symbolizing, suggesting and association by contrast

(3) Time and space crisscross and psychological time

(4) Without author’s appearance in novels

(5) Without distinctive and attractive plots

(6) Innovation and variation in language, overstepping syntax specification

3. Representative Writers and Works

(1) James Joyce: Dubliners (1914), a Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916)

(2) Virginia Woolf: Mrs. Dalloway (1925), To the Lighthouse (1927)

(3) Marcel Proust: In Search of Lost Time (1907-1922)

(4) William Faulkner: The Sound and the Fury (1929)

 

1.发展历史

意识流小说是20世纪20年代兴起于西方,以表现人们的意识流动,展示恍惚迷离的心灵世界为主的小说。

2.主要特征

(1)大量的内心独白和自由联想

(2)象征暗示和对比联想

(3)时空交错和心理时间

(4)作家退出小说

(5)情节淡化

(6)语言使用上的创新和变异,超出语法常规

3.代表作家作品

(1)爱尔兰的乔伊斯:《都柏林人》(1914),《青年艺术家的肖像》(1916)

(2)英国的沃尔夫: 《达洛卫夫人》(1925),《到灯塔去》(1927)

(3)法国的马塞尔·普鲁斯特:《追忆逝水年华》(1907-1922)

(4)美国的福克纳:《喧哗与骚动》(1929)

 

 

 

Confessional Poetry(自白派诗歌)

 

1. History of Development

    This new poetry school emerged in 1950s-1960s in America. The first confessional poem is Life Studies written by Robert Lowell, a famous American poet. Just like a guilty Christian confessed to the priest, he disclosed his privacy, inner sufferings, spiritual wounds and sexual desire and impulse completely and directly in this poem, which caused a strong reaction in poetry circle. And then 1960s’ “Confessional Poetry” movement started in America. Because of the influence of existentialism and dissatisfaction to the irrational material civilization and rigid life-style, many young poets who couldn’t find lofty ideal and living purpose imitated Robert Lowell to regard poetry as a tool to self-disclose and self-vent. Furthermore, some of them expressed their disgust of existence and suicide after being well-known.

2. Main Features

    Poems of this school are usually absurd, depressed and lacking reason, and reflect intellectuals’ distress, up-set, confusion and desperation.

3. Representative Writers and Works

(1) Robert Lowell: Lord Weary’s Castle (1946)

(2) Anne Sexton: Live or Die (1966)

(3) Silvia Plath: Ariel (1965)

1.发展历史

这是20世纪50、60年代在美国出现的一种新派诗歌。该派以美国著名诗人罗威尔为创始人。他的诗集《人生研究》开自白派诗歌的先河。罗威尔把自己的个人隐私、内心痛苦、心灵创伤以及情欲冲动,毫不隐讳地在诗歌中尽情倾吐,颇似犯了罪的基督教徒对牧师的忏悔。他的诗歌在诗坛引起了强烈反响,一些男女诗人纷纷效仿,在美国掀起了60年代的“自白诗歌”运动。二战后,由于存在主义哲学思想的影响,诗人对缺乏理性的物质文明和死板的生活方式日益不满,但又找不到崇高的理想和生活目标,便把诗歌作为自我揭露、自我发泄的工具。这些诗歌流露出厌世情绪,表达了诗人对西方文明的抗议与憎恨。一些诗人常常写自杀冲动,有的还身体力行,出名后便自杀了,成了创作冲动的牺牲品。

2.主要特征

自白派诗歌的内容大多荒诞、消沉、缺乏理性,反映了资本主义社会中一些知识分子痛苦、恼怒、困惑、绝望的心理状态

3.代表作家作品                

(1)罗伯特·洛威尔:《威利爵爷的城堡》(1946)

(2)安妮·塞克斯顿:《生或死》(1966) 

(3)西尔维娅·普拉斯:《爱丽尔》(1965)